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Video: ❶ Alexandra Sokolovskaya: Biography, Creativity, Career, Personal Life
2023 Author: Madeline Holiday | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:49
Alexandra Sokolovskaya was a Russian revolutionary who supported the Marxist political trend. Marked in history as the first wife of the Soviet statesman and party leader Lev Trotsky. Location: Location:
Alexandra Lvovna Sokolovskaya was born in 1872 in the city of Verkhnedneprovsk, which belonged to the Yekaterinoslav province. Now it is the Dnepropetrovsk region. The family was not rich, but educated, intelligent. Alexandra's father was a populist. Some sources confirm that his name was not Lev, but Leib. Sokolovskaya could be Jewish by nationality. But these data were not recorded even in the documents with the list of victims of repression, where she was registered.
Alexandra Sokolovskaya was a midwife by education. She has been striving for useful activities since childhood. To work in this specialty, she had to complete special specialized courses at Odessa University. But the girl was always attracted by social and political life. Already in her youth, she began to lead revolutionary activities, to which she attracted her brothers. But work also occupied one of the main places in Alexandra's life, so the girl decided to graduate from the midwife school at the maternity hospital in Odessa. Further her career in this direction hardly developed. Freed from prejudice, Alexandra moved to the city of Nikolaev in 1890 and became:
- convinced revolutionary;
- social democrat.
Six years (1896) after these events, Sokolovskaya organized the "South Russian Workers' Union". During these years, she fully supported the Marxist movement, actively shared its principles, worked with young people, and was engaged in propaganda.
Personal life and social activities
Lev Bronstein (Trotsky), who at that time was only 16 years old, got into the revolutionary circle formed by Alexandra Sokolovskaya. The girl was 7 years older than him. In the South Russian Workers' Union, Alexandra was the undoubted leader, a charming Marxist who fascinated many young people. Correct facial features, a slender figure, magnificent hair attracted other people from the People's Will. Everyone was a little in love with this girl. Young Bronstein was not struck by Sasha's attractiveness, but emphasized that she had "gentle eyes and an iron mind." The deepest devotion to socialism and the complete absence of personal life made Alexander Sokolovskaya inaccessible and amazing. In the circle of revolutionaries, she has an image of an authoritative person who is strict and unpredictable. But Lev Bronstein turned out to be a domineering and assertive young man,who quickly won Alexandra's heart.
It is known that a year after they met, their relationship became close, and in 1898 the lovers got married. Let us introduce her husband to the Marxist direction, Alexandra did not doubt that she had found a reliable ally for many years. At the end of January 1898, Sokolovskaya and Trotsky were arrested. Until 1902, together they were first in prison, and then in exile in Eastern Siberia. It was in prison that Alexander became the wife of Leo. They were married by a rabbi according to Jewish customs. In the biography of Sokolovskaya it is mentioned that her parents agreed to marry their daughter to a strong-willed young man. But the Bronstein family opposed this alliance. The state archive of the Nikolaev region has preserved a message to the Irkutsk governor from Trotsky's parents. They asked not to allow marriage, since Sokolovskaya is older than their son and clearly led him astray. Alexandra was pregnant during this period. She gave birth to her first daughter Zinaida in 1901, and a year later Nina was born.
For 1.5 years, Trotsky remained in Siberia. But in 1902 he escaped from exile. Going abroad, Leo left his wife with two young daughters. Later, Alexandra Sokolovskaya wrote that she agreed with her husband's escape and did not oppose him. Trotsky himself assured that he left his wife because of a revolutionary debt. Some sources indicate that the Marxist herself invited the father of her children to run away to continue the People's Will cause.
Abroad, Leon Trotsky got along in a civil marriage with a young revolutionary Natalya Sedova. The story mentions that Alexandra never gave her husband a divorce. Therefore, the sons of a new girlfriend became illegitimate. Sokolovskaya hardly reconciled herself to betrayal and did not show her suffering with all her might. It is believed that until the end of their lives, Leo and Alexander maintained friendly relations, corresponded and met in short episodes. Daughters Nina and Zinaida were raised by Trotsky's parents for a long time. The cause of the liberation of the working class and the new family occupied all of Lev's thoughts.
And Alexandra Sokolovskaya was serving a sentence in exile on Lena until 1905. She was then briefly released by the revolutionaries and arrested again until 1917. After finally gaining freedom, the woman settled with her daughters in Petrograd. Trotsky's abandoned wife worked:
- in Smolny;
- a history teacher in some schools in Leningrad;
- head teacher in Petrishul.
Sokolovskaya was also a member of the RSDLP for 10 years. She constantly corresponded with Trotsky, learning about his successes in their common cause. In December 1934, the revolutionary was arrested and sentenced to 5 years of exile in the Omsk region. The woman was accused of Trotskyist propaganda among students of the Forestry Institute. In 1936, Sokolovskaya was sent to the Kolyma camp, and then on a stage to Moscow. The military collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced the woman to be shot. The main reason for the accusation was the fulfillment of the instructions of Leon Trotsky, which came from abroad. But history shows that Sokolovskaya did not receive propaganda letters from her husband. In April 1938, the revolutionary was shot. Five decades later, Alexandra Lvovna Sokolovskaya was completely rehabilitated posthumously. The tragic fate of Trotsky's wife was darkened bythat she outlived both daughters for several years. Zinaida and Nina died, leaving children behind. Alexandra Lvovna took care of four grandchildren until her sentence was carried out.